Plant Morphology: Growth Form: Vine with a climbing or sprawling growth habit. Foliage: Leaves are round to bean-shaped with entire leaf margin. Venation is. ARISTOLOCHIA RINGENS SEEDS (Gaping Dutchman’s Pipe) – Plant World Seeds. This tall, hairless slender twiner, native to Brazil, bears extremely. Aristolochia ringens is considered as a local stimulant which could influence criminal behavior. In the present investigation, the detailed pharmacognostic study.
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As an evergreen, perennial climbing vine, A. Aristolochia species can also propagate vegetatively Bailey and Bailey, ; Starr et al. The species is widely cultivated as an ornamental on account of its showy flowers.
It is known to escape from cultivation Liogier and Martorell, ; Meerman, ; Acevedo-Rodriguez, ; Randall,is weedy in parts of Central Africa Randall,and has been reported to be invasive in Cuba Oviedo-Prieto et al.
The type genus of the family AristolochiaceaeAristolochia is a tropical genus of about species, mostly herbaceous or woody vines, less frequently herbs or shrubs, with greatest diversity of species in Central and South America Mesler and Lu, ; Kiew, ; Acevedo-Rodriguez, ; Wagner et al.
The following description is taken from Acevedo-Rodriguez, Slightly woody vine, twining, attaining 5 m in length. Stems cylindrical, slender, glabrous, with the pith hollow. Leaves alternate; blades x cm, broadly ovate, reniform or orbicular, chartaceous, with prominently reticulate venation, the apex obtuse or rounded, the base deeply cordate, the margins entire; upper surface dark green, dull; lower surface glaucous, glabrous, with numerous scattered dots; petioles cm long, sulcate or compressed, broadened at the base; pseudostipules foliaceous, ovate-rounded, 2.
Flowers solitary, pendulous; peduncle 7. Capsule cm long, oblong or oblanceolate, with 6 ribs, the apex mucronate, the base acute; seeds numerous, rhomboid, winged, mm long.
However, it was not listed in the Forzza et al. According to Gonzalezthe species is known only in cultivation in Brazil; although it has been reported to be native to Brazil, this is very likely due to misidentification of morphologically similar species occurring there. Although many other Aristolochia species occur in the Old World tropics, A. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.
Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain, but may have occurred in the early 20 th century. Britton and Wilson did include it in the fifth volume of their scientific survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Britton and Wilson,in which they report A.
It is now reportedly invasive in Cuba Oviedo-Prieto et al.
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)
Risk of introduction for A. The species is a climbing vine which grows quickly, reproduces by winged seeds which it produces many ofand can tolerate shade.
There is also mounting evidence of potential negative human and animal health effects of consuming Aristolochia species Debelle et al. Considering these factors, and the fact that some of its closely related species are highly invasive and have been known to outcompete native flora by smothering such as A.
In Bolivia, it has been reported to grow in montane Chaqueno forest Bolivia Checklist, In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands the species is known to escape cultivation into roadsides and in open areas Acevedo-Rodriguez, In Antioquia, Colombia, the species has been reported growing anywhere between 0 and m Vascular Plants of Antioquia,while in Peru it has only been reported occurring at elevations up to rijgens Peru Checklist,in Panama up to m Panama Checklist,and in Bolivia between and m Bolivia Checklist, Aristolochia species are important as larval foodplants for swallowtail butterflies of the genera Battus and Parideswhich feed exclusively aristolocnia leaves and young shoots of Aristolochia ; ingestion and storage of the toxic aristolochic acid in turn makes the butterflies unpalatable to predators Kiew, ; Meerman, Although caterpillars of various butterfly species feed on the leaves of Aristolochiathey are rarely reported to cause extensive defoliation Kiew, The seeds of A.
The roots are used by humans in traditional medicine. Aristolochia can propagate vegetatively, so accidental introduction through human activity is possible Bailey and Bailey, ; Starr et al. The species is known to have escaped from cultivation in Africa, parts of central America and the West Indies Liogier and Martorell, ; Meerman, ; Acevedo-Rodriguez, ; Randall, This species is a climbing vine aristo,ochia grows and spreads its seeds quickly. Several Aristolochia species including A.
The larvae are then poisoned by the toxic leaves, resulting in such a decline of population that the Richmond birdwing is now extinct in over two thirds of its range Sands and Scott, ; Sands and New, ; Weeds of Australia, In Africa, where it has been introduced and in many places escaped from rinens and become naturalized, the species is reportedly used for the management of snake bite venom, gastrointestinal disturbances such as diarrhoea, rheumatoid arthritis, and insomnia Adeyemi et al.
However, there is aristolocbia evidence of the renal toxicity of various Aristolochia species, which contain aristolochic acid and have been associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy AANa renal interstitial fibrosis and upper urinary tract cancer UUC that is likely to be particularly underestimated among populations that rely heavily on traditional medicines Debelle et al.
Most species of the Aristolochia genus produce foul-smelling, showy flowers, and all produce the toxic aristolochic acid which evidence suggests is carcinogenic.
General information regarding mechanical ringrns is available for members of the Aristolochia genus. Small plants can be pulled or dug out, ensuring that the crown and the roots are removed. Vigorous growth may be cut down using a brush hook or other such tool, preferably before seeds set.
Trace vines to their main crown and cut with a knife well below this growing point, removing all parts of the plant from the soil.
In Hawaii, several non-native Aristolochia species have become weedy and invasive. According to Starr et al. To allow proper translocation, do not cut vines. Repeat control is necessary to control any regrowth or stems that were originally missed.
Further research is needed on methods of prevention and control, especially considering its threat to native flora and fauna. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, The antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous root extract of Aristolochia ringens Vahl.
Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 22 1: Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico.
Bello Espinosa D, Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. Britton NL; Wilson P, Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. University of the West Indies. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: Kidney International, 74 2: Dr Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.
Flora of Nicaragua, Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield Venezuela: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, pp. Flora de Colombia, On the ch’ing muh hsiang, or “green putchuk,” of the Chinese. With some remarks on the antidotal virtues ascribed to Aristolochiae.
Flora of West Tropical Africa: Medicinal and poisonous plants 1 [ed. Krell D; Stebbing J, Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, pp. The flora of Jamaica: A description of the plants of that island. Aristolochia’s native to Belize. Biodiversity in Belize online database.
Mesler MR; Lu K, Treatment from the Jepson Manual. Is aristolochic acid nephropathy a widespread problem in developing countries?: A case study of Aristolochia indica L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1: National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba – Panama Checklist, Tropicos website.
Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Dutchman’s pipe Aristolochia spp. Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry.
A Global Compendium of Weeds. Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, pp. Conservation of the Richmond Birdwing Butterfly in Australia. Springer Press, pp. Conservation of Birdwing Butterflies. Science Communication and Education Services. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. National Plant Data Center.